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Links to the Scientific Literature
  The sign of fluoride over-dose (dental fluorosis) is pandemic in fluoridated areas
    When the panacea becomes the poison, whose responsibility is it?


toc: Are Fluoridation Benefits Over-rated?, Bone Effects, Neurological, Dental Caries, Deaths/Poisoning, Dental Fluorosis, Environmental, Cancer/Mutagen, Reproductive, Health Effects, Ethics/Legal, Fraud/Errors, Suppression - Persecution

ETHICS and LEGAL (abstracts/summary)
  • Diesendorf M, How Science Can Illuminate Ethical Debates A Case Study On Water Fluoridation, Fluoride, 1995, 28:2
  • Exner FB, M.D., Duties of legislators regarding fluoridation of water supplies

DENTAL CARIES (Abstracts, Abstracts2, Abstracts3)
  • Angelillo IF et al., Caries and fluorosis prevalence in communities with different concentrations of fluoride in the water, Caries Res 33(2) 1999
  • Cahen PM, et al., Caries prevalence in 6- to 15-year-old French children based on the 1987 and 1991 national surveys, J Dent Res, 1993 72 (12)
  • Colquhoun J, Influence of social class and fluoridation on child dental health, Com Den Oral Epidem, 1985, 13(1)
  • Colquhoun J, Child Dental Health Differences in New Zealand, Com Health Studies, 1987, XI:2
  • Colquhoun J, Mann R The Hastings Fluoridation Experiment - Science or Swindle?... The Ecologist, 1986 16:6/1987 17:2/3
  • de Liefde B, The decline of caries in New Zealand over the past 40 years, NZ Dental J, 1998, 94:417
  • Diesendorf M, et al., New evidence on fluoridation, Aust NZ J Public Health, 1997, 21(2)
  • Diesendorf M, Anglesey Fluoridation Trials Re-Examined, Fluoride, 1989, 22:2
  • Disney JA, et al., A case study in contesting the conventional wisdom: school-based fluoride mouthrinse programs in the USA, Com Den Oral Epidem, 1990, 18
  • Foch CB, The Costs, Effects, And Benefits of Preventive Dental Care: A Literature Review, 1981, N-1732-RWJF, A Rand Corporation Report
  • Foulkes RG, Review of Report: Investigation of Inorganic Fluoride and its Effect on the Occurrence of Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis in Canada..., Fluoride, 1995 Aug, 28:3
  • Gray AS, Fluoridation: time for a new baseline? J Can Dent Assoc, 1987, 53
  • Haikel Y, et al., Dental caries and fluorosis in children from high and low fluoride areas of Morocco, Assoc J Dent Child, 1989, 56:5
  • Hildebolt CF, et al., Caries prevalences among geochemical regions of Missouri, Am J Phys Anthropol, 1989, 78(1)
  • Ismail AI, et al., Should the drinking water of Truro, Nova Scotia, be fluoridated? Water fluoridation in the 1990s, Com Dent Oral Epidem, 1993, 21
  • Ismail AI, et al., Prevalence of Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis in Students, 11-17 Years of Age, in Fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Cities in Quebec, Caries Research, 1990, 24
  • Johnston DW, et al., The Decline of Dental Caries in Ontario School Children, J Can Dent Assn, 1986, 5
  • Kalsbeek H, et al., Caries Experience of 15-Year-Old Children in The Netherlands after Discontinuation of Water Fluoridation, Caries Research, 1993, 27
  • Kalsbeek H, Verrips GHW, Dental Caries Prevalence and the Use of Fluorides in Different European Countries, J. Dent Res, 69 (Spec Iss), 1990
  • Koch G, et al., Effect of 250 and 1000 ppm fluoride dentifrice on caries, Swedish Dent J, 1982, 6
  • Konig KG, New recommendations concerning the fluoride content of toddler toothpaste - consequences for systemic application of fluoride. Gesundheitswesen. 2002 Jan;64(1):33-8.
  • Kortelainen-S, LARMAS-M, Effect of fluoride on caries progression and dentin apposition in rats fed on a cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet, Scandinavian J. Den Res, 1993, 101(1)
  • Krook L, et al., Dental fluorosis in cattle, Cornell-Vet, 1983, 73:4
    Künzel W. Fischer T. Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba, Caries Res 2000;34:20-25.
  • Künzel W, Fischer T, Rise and fall of caries prevalence in German towns with different F concentrations in drinking water, Caries Research 1997, 31:3
  • Leverett DH, et al., Randomized clinical trial of the effect of prenatal fluoride supplements in preventing dental caries, Caries Res, 1997, 31(3)
  • Levy SM, Review of fluoride exposures and ingestion, Com Dent Oral Epidem, 1994, 27
  • Manji F, Fejerskov O, Dental Caries in Developing Countries in Relation to the Appropriate Use of Fluoride, J Den Res, 1990, 69(Spec Iss)
  • Marthaler TM, et al., The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Europe 1990-1995, Caries Res, 1996, 30:4
  • Mathiesen AT, et al., Oral Hygiene as a Variable in Dental Caries Experience in 14-Year-Olds Exposed to Fluoride, Caries Res, 1996, 30
  • Miyazaki H, Morimoto M, Changes in caries prevalence in Japan. Eur J Oral Sci, 1996, 104 (4 Pt 2)
  • Maupome G. et al., Patterns of dental caries following the cessation of water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001 Feb;29(1):37-47.
  • Moss ME, et al. Association of dental caries and blood lead levels. JAMA 1999 Jun 23-30;281(24):2294-8. Comment in: JAMA 1999 Jun 23-30;281(24):2340-2.
  • Paynette M, et al., Comparison of dental caries and oral hygiene indices For 13-14 Year Old Quebec Children between 1977 and 1984, J. Canadian Dental Assn, 1988, 54:3
  • Riordan PJ, Fluoride supplements for young children: an analysis of the literature focusing on benefits and risks, Comm Dent & Oral Epidemio 27(1):72-83, 1999
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Report 2, National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program 1983 (no benefit to topical treatments in a four-year test in ten differing communities)
  • Seppa L, et al., Caries frequency in permanent teeth before and after discontinuation of water fluoridation in Kuopio, Finland, Comm Dent Oral Epid 1998, 26:4
  • Spencer AJ, et al., Water fluoridation in Australia, Community Dent Health, 1996, 13(Suppl 2)
  • Szpunar SM, Burt BA, Evaluation of appropriate use of dietary fluoride supplements in the US, Com Dent Oral Epid, 1992, 20(3)
  • Steiner M, et al., The dental health of permanently resident schoolchildren in 16 Zurich rural communities in 1992, Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed, 1995, 105 (11)
  • Sutton PRN, The Failure of Fluoridation, Fluoride, 1990, 23:1
  • Teotia SPS, Teotia M, Dental Caries: A Disorder of High Fluoride And Low Dietary Calcium Interactions (30 years of Personal Research), Fluoride, 1994, 27:2 the largest study on dental caries in the world
  • Thylstrup A, et al., A light and scanning electron microscopic study of enamel decalcification in children living in a water-fluoridated area, J Dent Res, 1990, 69:10
  • Tijmstra T et al., Com Dent Oral Epidem, 6, 1978 (when children are matched by fathers' occupation, candy consumption and toothbrushing habits, the supposed reduction in caries among fluoride users vanishes)
  • van Rijkom HM, et al., A meta-analysis of clinical studies on the caries-inhibiting effect of fluoride gel treatment, Pediatr Dent, 1995, 17:4
  • Winter GB, et al., Clinical trial of a low-fluoride toothpaste for young children, Int Dent J, 1989, 39(4)
  • Yiamouyiannis JA., Water Fluoridation And Tooth Decay: Results From The 1986-1987 National Survey of U.S. Schoolchildren, Fluoride, 1990, 23:2
  • Ziegelbecker R, and Ziegelbecker RC, WHO Data on Dental Caries and Natural Water Fluoride Levels," Fluoride, 1993, 26:4
Up FLUORIDE BONE EFFECTS (abstracts/summary)
  • Hip fracture rates in seniors are rising in fluoridated areas and are increasing more rapidly than can be accounted for by an aging population.
  • Two studies show increased osteosarcomas in children (a rare, often fatal bone cancer).
  • New radiographic techniques show bone abnormalities in children with dental fluorosis (the teeth are a window to what is happening in the bones).
  • Bone abnormalities are seen in aborted fetuses born to mothers with dental fluorosis.
  • World Health Organization warns that ingesting 2.0 - 8.0 mg of fluoride per day (as little as 2 liters of fluoridated water) can lead to the pre-clinical stage (arthritis-like symptoms) of skeletal fluorosis (a crippling bone disease).
  • Editorial, Official "Safe" Fluoride Intakes Based On Arithmetic Error, Fluoride, 1997, 30:4
  • Alhava EM, et al, The effect of drinking water fluoridation on the fluoride content, strength and mineral density of human bone, Acta Orthop Scand, 1980, 51 (3)
  • Bayley TA, et al., Fluoride-induced fractures: relation to osteogenic effect, J Bone Miner Res, 1990, 5 Suppl 1
  • Carter DR, Beaupre GS, Effects of fluoride treatment on bone strength,
  • Cauley JA, et al, Public Health Bonus of Water Fluoridation: Does Fluoridation Prevent Osteoporosis and Its Related Fractures?, Am J. of Epidem, 1991, 134
  • Cauley JA, et al, Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures, J Bone Miner Res, 1995, 10 (7)
  • Caverzasio J, et al., Aluminum potentiates the effect of fluoride on tyrosine phosphorylation and osteoblast replication in vitro and bone mass in vivo, J Bone Miner Res 1996, 11(1)
  • Chlebna-Sokól D, Czerwinski E, Bone Structure Assessment On Radiographs Of Distal Radial Metaphysis In Children With Dental Fluorosis, Fluoride, 1993, 26:1
  • Cooper C, et al., Water Fluoridation and Hip Fracture, JAMA (Letters), 1991, 266:4
  • Czerwinski E, et al., Evaluation of bone mineral density in the distal radius of former workers employed at the Aluminum Works, Przegl Lek 1997, 54(4)
  • Czerwinski E, et al., Bone and Joint Pathology in Fluoride-Exposed Workers, Archives of Environmental Health, 1988, 43:5
  • Danielson C, et al, Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population, JAMA, 1992, 268(6)
  • Dequeker J, Declerck K, Fluor in the treatment of osteoporosis. An overview of thirty years clinical research, Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. J. Suisse de Medecine, 1993, 123(47)
  • Dure-Smith BA, et al., Calcium deficiency in fluoride-treated osteoporotic patients despite calcium supplementation, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996, 81(1)
  • Fratzl P, et al, Abnormal bone mineralization after fluoride treatment in osteoporosis: a small-angle x-ray-scattering study, J Bone Miner Res, 1994, 9 (10)
  • Foulkes RG, DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (...National Academy of Science, 1997), Fluoride, 1997, 30:4
  • Grynpas MD, Fluoride effects on bone crystals, J Bone Miner Res, 1990, 5:Suppl 1
  • Gutteridge DH, et al, Spontaneous hip fractures in fluoride-treated patients: potential causative factors, J Bone Miner Res, 1990, Suppl 1, S205-S215
  • Gutteridge DH, et al., Fluoride treatment of osteoporosis: cyclical non-blinded or continuous blinded studies?, Osteoporosis Int, 1993, 3:Suppl 1
  • Harrison JE, et al, The relationship between fluoride effects on bone histology and on bone mass in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, Bone Miner, 1986, 1 (4).
  • Hedlund LR, Gallagher JC, Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride, J Bone Miner Res, 1989, 4(2)
  • Hillier S. et al., Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study, Lancet, Jan 2000.
  • Jacobsen SJ, et al, Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota, Am J Public Health, 1993, 83:5.
  • Jacobsen SJ, et al, The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older. A national ecologic study, Annals of Epidemiology, 1992, 2:5.
  • Jacobsen SJ, et al., Regional Variation in the Incidence of Hip Fracture US..., JAMA, 1990, 264:4
  • Jacqmin-Gadda H, et al, Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly [letter], JAMA, 1995, 273(10)
  • Jiang Y, et al, Effects of low-dose long-term sodium fluoride preventive treatment on rat bone mass and biomechanical properties, Calcif Tissue Int, 1996, 58 (1)
  • Kanis JA, Treatment of symptomatic osteoporosis with fluoride, Am J of Medicine, 1993, 95(5A), 53S-61S.
  • Kleerekoper M, Non-dental tissue effects of fluoride, Advances in Dental Research, 1994, 8(1)
  • Kleerekoper M, Fluoride and the skeleton, Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1996 Apr, 33:2
  • Krishnamachari KA, Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease, Prog Food Nutr Sci, 1986, 10 (3-4)
  • Karagas MR, et al., Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: geographic and fluoride effects, Ann Epidemiol, 1996 May, 6(3)
  • Kurttio P, et al, Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1999 Oct 15;150(8):817-24
  • Lafage MH, et al, Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs... J Clin Invest, 1995, 95 (5)
  • Lehmann R, et al., Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Bone 1998 Mar;22(3):273-278
  • Lee JR, Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study (A critique of the study appearing in Lancet by Hillier S, et al).
  • Lee JR, Fluoridation and Osteoporosis '92, Fluoride,1992, 25:3,162-164
  • Lee JR, Slow-Release Sodium Fluoride In The Management Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, Fluoride 1994, 27:4 (review - CYC Pak et al, Annals of Int Med 120, 1994).
  • Lee JR, Fluoridation and Hip Fracture, Fluoride 1993, 26:4
  • Li J, et al, Distribution profiles of fluoride in three different kinds of rat bones, Bone, 1993, 14 (6)
  • Lundy MW, et al, Histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies in placebo-treated versus fluoride-treated subjects, Osteoporosis Int, 1995, 5 (2)
  • Maylin GA, et al.,, Fluoride intoxication in dairy calves, Cornell Vet, 1987, 77:1
  • Patel S, et al., Fluoride pharmacokinetics and changes in lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density, Bone, 1996, 19(6)
  • Phipps KR, Burt BA, Water-borne fluoride and cortical bone mass: a comparison of two communities, J Dent Res, 1990, 69 (6)
  • Razumov VV, et al, Morphogenesis of occupational fluoride osteopathy, Med Tr Prom Ekol, 1997, 4
  • Richards A, et al., Fluoride pharmacokinetics in the domestic pig, J Dent Res 1982, 61(9)
  • Riggs BL, et al., Effect of Fluoride Treatment on the Fracture Rate in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis, New England J. of Medicine, 1990, 322:12
  • Riggs BL, et al., Clinical trial of fluoride therapy in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: extended observations and additional analysis, J Bone Miner Res, 1994, 9:2, 265-275
  • Riggs BL, et al., Drug therapy for vertebral fractures in osteoporosis: evidence that decreases in bone turnover and increases in bone mass both determine antifracture efficacy, Bone 1996, 18(3 Suppl)
  • Shi J, et al., Relationship between bone fluoride content, pathological change in bone of aborted fetuses and maternal fluoride level, Chung Hua, Yu Fang, Hsueh I, Tsa Chih, 1995, 29 (2).
  • Søgaard CH, et al., Marked Decrease in Trabecular Bone Quality After Five Years of Sodium Fluoride Therapy -- Assessed by Biomechanical Testing of Iliac Crest Bone Biopsies in Osteoporotic Patients, Bone, 1994, 15:4
  • Søgaard CH, et al, Effects of fluoride on rat vertebral body biomechanical competence and bone mass, Bone, 1995, 16:1
  • Sowers MR, et al, The relationship of bone mass and fracture history to fluoride and calcium intake: a study of three communities, Am J Clin Nutr, 1986, 44 (6)
  • Sowers MR, et al., A Prospective Study of Bone Mineral content and Fracture in Communities with Differential Fluoride Exposure, Am. J. of Epidemiology, 1991, 133:7
  • Suarez-Almazor ME, et al., The Fluoridation of Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Hospitalization Rates in Two Canadian Communities, Am J. Public Health, 1993, 83
  • Turner CH, et al, Fluoride treatment increased serum IGF-1, bone turnover, and bone mass, but not bone strength, in rabbits, Calcif Tissue Int, 1997, 61:1
  • Turner CH, et al, Reductions in bone strength after fluoride treatment are not reflected in tissue-level acoustic measurements, Bone, 1996, 19:6
  • Turner CH, et al, High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency, Bone, 1996, 19 (6)
  • Turner CH, et al, Fluoride reduces bone strength in older rats, J Dent Res, 1995, 74 (8)
  • Turner CH, et al, A mathematical model for fluoride uptake by the skeleton, Calcif Tissue Int, 1993, 52 (2)
  • Turner CH, et al, The effects of fluoridated water on bone strength, J Orthopaedic Research, 1992, 10(4)
  • Turner RT, et al, The effects of fluoride on bone and implant histomorphometry in growing rats, J Bone Miner Res, 1989, 4 (4)
  • Waldbott GL, The Preskeletal Phase of Chronic Fluoride Intoxication, 1998, Fluoride, 31:1, 13-20
  • Wei XY, Study on determinationing the bone mineral content as diagnostic value for occupational fluorosis, Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih 1993, 27(2)
  • Xiao B, et al., Aluminum and fluorine in blood and bone of rats fed on diet mixed with various contents of aluminum, fluoride or their mixture, Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1992, 23(2)
  • Zhang Y, et al., Histopathologic and bone histomorphometric studies of pigs' phalanges in an endemic fluorosis area, Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1994, 25(1)

UpDENTAL FLUOROSIS (Abstracts/summary. See pictures)
Up to 69.2% of Canadian children in fluoridated communities now have dental fluorosis, a 59% increase since 1945. Although most of this reflects mild fluorosis, moderate to severe fluorosis is on the increase. Some fluoride proponents are thus advocating that: fluoride supplements be eliminated (<16% of eligible children take them); and, only a "pea-sized" portion of toothpaste be used for young children (the spitting mechanism is not fully developed until about age five). Even if a "pea-sized" portion of paste is used, many children still swallow all or most of the yummy-tasting fluoridated paste, therefore increasing their risk of developing fluorosis.

Some fluoride proponents are advising parents NOT to use fluoridated toothpaste for children under age three. Others say parents should only use a tiny smear just enough to wet a couple of bristles. See toothpaste advisory by Calgary Regional Health Authority, and Calgary & District Dental Society.

  • Aoba T, The effect of fluoride on apatite structure and growth, Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 1997;8(2):136-153
  • Awad MA, et al, Dental Caries and Fluorosis in 7-9 and 11-14 Year Old Children Who Received Fluoride Supplements from Birth, J. Canadian Dental Association, 1991, 60:4, 318-322.
  • Baelum V, et al, Posteruptive tooth age and severity of dental fluorosis in Kenya, Scand J Dental Res, 1986 Oct, 94:5, 405-410
  • Burt BA, The Case for Eliminating The Use of Dietary Fluoride Supplements Among Young Children, Fluoride, 1994 April, 27(2), 121. Abstract presented at the Dietary Fluoride Supplement Conference, ADA Chicago, Jan 31-Feb 1, 1994 [see lee-jr.htm for further info]
  • Chan JT et al., The role of caffeinated beverages in dental fluorosis, Med- Hypotheses, 1990 Sep, 33:1, 21-22
  • Chen YC, et al., Nutrition Survey In Dental Fluorosis-Afflicted Areas, Fluoride, 1997 May, 30:2, 77-80
  • Chlebna-Sokól D, Czerwinski E, Bone Structure Assessment On Radiographs Of Distal Radial Metaphysis In Children With Dental Fluorosis, Fluoride, 1993 Jan, 26:1, 37-44
  • Clark C, Trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in North America, Community Den Oral Epidem, 1994, 22, 148-52
  • Fejerskov O, et al., Dental tissue effects of fluoride, Fluoride, 1994 October, 27(4), 236, from Advances in Dental Research, 1994, 8(l), 15-31
  • Fejerskov O, et al., The Nature and Mechanisms of Dental Fluorosis in Man, Journal Dental Research, 1990 February, 69 (Special Issue):692-700
  • Giambro NJ, et al., Characterization Of Fluorosed Human Enamel By Color Reflectance, Ultrastructure, And Elemental Composition, Fluoride, 1995 November, 28:4, 216, from Caries Research 29 (4) 251-257 1995
  • Gotjamanos T, Safety issues related to the use of silver fluoride in paediatric dentistry, Aust Dent J, 1997 Jun, 42(3), 166-168
  • Grimaldo M. et al., Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Environ Res 1995 Jan;68(1)
  • Hawley GM, et al., Dental caries, fluorosis and the cosmetic implications of different TF scores in 14-year-old adolescents, Community Dent Health, 1996 Dec, 13(4), 189-192
  • Heilman JR, et al., Fluoride concentrations of infant foods, J Am Dent Assoc, 1997 Jul, 128(7), 857-863.
  • Heller KE, Eklund SA, and Burt BA, Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations, Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57 (3) 1997 136-14
  • Horowitz HS, The need for toothpastes with lower than conventional fluoride concentrations for preschool-aged children, J Public Health Dent, 1992, 52(4), 216-221
  • Ismail AI, Fluoride supplements: current effectiveness, side effects, and recommendations, Community Dental Oral Epidemiology, 1994, 22, 164-72
  • Ismail AI, et al., Prevalence of Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis in Students, 11-17 Years of Age, in Fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Cities in Quebec, Caries Research, 1990, 24
  • Kiritsy MC, et al., Assessing fluoride concentrations of juices and juice-flavored drinks, JADA, 1996 Jul, 127 (7), 895-902
  • Krook L, et al., Dental fluorosis in cattle, Cornell-Vet, 1983 Oct., 73:4, 340-362
  • Liefde B de, Longitudinal survey of enamel defects in a cohort of New Zealand Children, Comm Dent Oral Epidem, 1988, 16, 218-221
  • Levine RS, et al., A photographically recorded assessment of enamel in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in England, British Dental Journal, 1989 Apr 8, 166(7):249-52. [note: fluorosis is sometimes referred to as hypoplasia]
  • Levy SM, et al., Patterns of fluoride dentifrice use among infants, Pediatr Dent, 1997 Jan 19 (1) 50-55
  • Levy SM, et al., Infants' Fluoride Intake From Drinking Water Alone, And From Water Added To Formula, Beverages, And Food, Fluoride, 1996 Feb, 29:1, 54, from J. of Den. Res., 1995, 74:7, 1399-1407
  • Levy SM, et al., Infants' Fluoride Intake From Drinking Water Alone, And From Water Added To Formula, Beverages, And Food, Fluoride, 1996 Feb, 29:1, 54, from J. of Den. Res., 1995, 74:7, 1399-1407
  • Lewis DW, Banting DW, Water fluoridation: current effectiveness and dental fluorosis, Com Den Oral Epidem, 1994, 22, 53-8
  • Levy SM, et al., Infants Fluoride Ingestion From Water, Supplements and Dentifrice, Fluoride, 1996 May, 29:2,113. from JADA, 1995, 126:12 1625-1632
  • Levy SM, et al., Sources Of Fluoride Intake In Children, Fluoride, 28:4, 1995 November, 215-216, from J. of Public Health Dentistry, 55 (1), 39-52 1995
  • Maylin GA, et al., Fluoride intoxication in dairy calves, Cornell Vet, 1987, 77:1, 84-98
  • Nunn JH, et al., Assessment of enamel opacities in children in Sri Lanka and England using a photographic method, Community Dent Health, 1993, 10:2, 175-188
  • Riordan PJ, The Place Of Fluoride Supplements In Caries Prevention Today, Fluoride, 1997 Feb, 30:1, 67, from Australian Dent J, 1996, 41:5, 335-342
  • Riordan PJ, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries And Fluoride Exposure Among 7-year-olds, Fluoride, 1993 July, 26:3, 231-232, from Caries Res, 1993, 27, 71-77
  • Riordan PJ, Perceptions of Dental Fluorosis, Fluoride, January 1994, 27:1, 54-55, abstracted from J Dent Res, 72 (9), 1268-1274 1993
  • Riordan PJ, Guidelines for the use of dietary fluoride supplements in Australia, Australian Dent J, 1989, 34(4):359-62
  • Roberts MW, et al., Fluoride Supplement Prescribing and Dental Referral Patterns Among Academic Pediatricians, Pediatrics 1998, 101(1):E6.   Text at http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/101/1/e6  A significant proportion of Pediatricians prescribe fluoride even though they do not bother to evaluate an infant's present intake, or if there is even a "need" for it! This places children at greater risk of fluorosis.
  • Rock WP, Sabieha AM, The relationship between reported toothpaste usage in infancy and fluorosis of permanent incisors, Br Dent J, 1997, 183(5), 165-170
  • Rugg-Gunn AJ, et al., Effects of fluoride level in drinking water, nutritional status, and socio-economic status on the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in permanent teeth in Saudi 14-year-old boys, Caries Res, 1997, 31(4), 259-267
  • Seow WK, Thomsett MJ, Dental fluorosis as a complication of hereditary diabetes insipidus: studies of six affected patients, Pediatr Dent, 1994, 16 (2)
  • Sergio GS, et al., Fluoride content of tea and amount ingested by children, Odontol Chil, 1989, 37:2, 251-255
  • Shupe JL, et al., Relationship of cheek tooth abrasion to fluoride-induced permanent incisor lesions in livestockAm J Vet Res, 1987, 48:10, 1498-1503
  • Silva M, Reynolds EC, Fluoride Content Of Infant Formulae In Australia, Fluoride, 1996 May, 29:2, 15-116, from Australian Den J., 1996, 41:1, 37-42
  • Stannard JG, et al., Fluoride levels and fluoride contamination of fruit juices, J. Clinical Pediatric Dent, 1991, 16:1, 38-40
  • van Palenstein, et al., Two types of intraoral distribution of fluorotic enamel, Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1997, 25(3), 251-255
    Warren JJ et al, Fluorosis of the primary dentition: What does it mean for permanent teeth? JADA 130(3):347-356, 1999
  • Weeks KJ, et al., Enamel Defects In 4-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Children In Fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Parts of Cheshire, UK, Fluoride, 1994 Jan, 27(1), 55, from Caries Res, 1993, 27:4 317-320
  • Whitford GM, Determinants and mechanisms of enamel fluorosis, Ciba Found Symp, 1997, 205, 226-241
  • Woltgens JH, et al., Use of fluoride by young children and prevalence of mottled enamel, Advances in Dent Res, 1989, 3(2):177-82
  • Wright JT, et al., Protein characterization of fluorosed human enamel, J Dent Res, 1996, 75(12), 1936-1941

NEUROLOGICAL -- Fluoride Effects on the BRAIN (abstracts)
  • Editorial, Neurotoxicity of fluoride, Fluoride, 1996, 29:2, 57-58
  • Calderon J. et al., Influence of Fluoride Exposure on Reaction Time and Visuospatial Organization in Children. Epidemiology July 2000, Volume 11, Number 4 Supplement S153.
  • Guan ZZ et al., Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1998 Sep-Oct;20(5):537-42
  • Jope RS, Modulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by NaF and aluminum in rat cortical slices. J Neurochem 1988 Dec;51(6):1731-6
  • Kay AR, et al., Intracellular fluoride alters the kinetic properties of calcium currents facilitating the investigation of synaptic events in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 1986;6(10).
  • Li Y, Li X, Wei S, Effect of excessive fluoride intake on mental work capacity of children and a preliminary study of its mechanism, Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1994, 25:2
  • Li XS, Zhi JL, Gao RO, Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children, Fluoride, 1995, 28:4
  • Liu WX, Experimental study of behavior and cerebral morphology of rat pups generated by fluorotic female rat, Chung-hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1989, 18:4
  • Mattsson JL, et al., Subchronic neurotoxicity in rats of the structural fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride, Neurotoxicol-Teratol, 1988, 10:2
  • Mullenix PJ, et al., Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats, Neurotoxicology Teratology, 1995,17(2)
  • Spittle B, Psychopharmacology of fluoride: a review, Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 9:2, 1994
  • Strunecká A, Patoèka J, Pharmacological implications of aluminofluoride complexes. A review of the evidence for pathophysiological effects of aluminium and fluoride on living organism.
  • Varner JA, et al., Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity, Brain Res, 1998, 16, 784(1-2). See also:News Release
  • Varner JA, et al., The Neurotoxicological Evaluation Of The Chronic Administration Of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride, Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting; San Diego, CA, 1995
  • Varner JA, et al., Chronic AlF3 Administration: II. Selected Histological Observations, Neuroscience Research Communications, 1993, 13:2
  • Yang Y, et al., Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children's intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine, Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1994, 15 (5), 296-298
  • Zhao LB, et al., Effect of a high fluoride water supply on children's intelligence, Fluoride, 1996, 29:4
UpCANCER & MUTAGENICITY (abstracts)
  • Calabrese E, Evaluation of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Cancer Bioassay on Sodium Fluoride, 1991
  • Caspary WJ, et al., Mutagenic activity of fluorides in mouse lymphoma cells, Mutat Res, 187: 3, 1987, 165-80
  • Cohn PD, A Brief Report On The Association Of Drinking Water Fluoridation And The Incidence of Osteosarcoma Among Young Males, NJ Depart. of Health, Environ. Health Service, 1992
  • Jones CA, et al., Sodium fluoride promotes morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells, Carcinogenesis, 1988, 9:12
  • Lee JR, Fluoride Exposure and Childhood Osteosarcoma A case-control study (A report by Gelberg KH et al., of the N.Y. State Department of Health, in The American Journal of Public Health, 1995, 85, 1678-1683), Fluoride,1996, 29:4
  • Liu YQ, Promotive action of sodium fluoride on precancerous lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in rats -- stereologic study of enzyme histochemistry, Chung-hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1993, 22 (5)
  • Marcus W, Senior Science Advisor, Criteria & Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water (ODW), United States Environmental Protection Agency, Memo, 1990
  • Maurer JK, et al., Two-year carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1990 Jul 4, 82:13, 1118-26
  • Meng Z, Zhang B, Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in lymphocytes of workers at a phosphate fertilizer factory, Mutat Res, 1997, 393(3)
  • Smith GE, Is fluoride a mutagen?, Sci Total Environ, 68:1988
  • Tohyama E, Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan., J Epidemiol, 1996, 6 (4)
  • Tsutsui T et al., Sodium fluoride-induced morphological and neoplastic transformation, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured syrian hamster embryo cells, Cancer Res, 1984 Mar;44(3):938-41
  • Tsutsui T, et al., Cytotoxicity, chromosome aberrations and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured human diploid fibroblasts induced by sodium fluoride. Mutat Res 1984 Apr;139(4):193-8.
  • Zeiger E, et al, Genetic Toxicity of Fluoride, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1993, 21

REPRODUCTIVE Effects of Fluoride (abstracts/summary)
  • Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, In Vitro Toxicity In Human Spermatozoa, Fluoride, 1994, 27:4
  • Chinoy NJ, Sukla S, Walimbe AS, Bhattacharya S, Fluoride Toxicity on Rat Testis and Cauda Epididymal Tissue Components and its Reversal, Fluoride, 1997, 30:1
  • Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, Dalal V, et al, Amelioration of Fluoride Toxicity in Some Accessory Reproductive Glands, and Spermatozoa of Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:2
  • Chinoy NJ, Reddy VVPC, Michael M, Beneficial Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Calcium on Reproductive Functions of Sodium Fluoride-Treated Prebubertal Male Rats, Fluoride, 1994, 27:2
  • Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Narayana MV, Effects of Vitamin C and Calcium on the Reversibility of Fluoride-Induced Alterations in Spermatozoa of Rabbits, Fluoride, 1991, 24:1
  • Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Reversible Fluoride Induced Fertility Impairment In Male Mice, Fluoride, 1992, 25:2, 71-76
  • Chinoy NJ, Manisha S, Mathews M, Beneficial Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Calcium on Reversal of Fluoride Toxicity in Male Rats, Fluoride, 1993, 26:1
  • Eckerlin RH, et al., Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoride on reproduction in silver foxes. Cornell Vet 1988;78(4).
  • Freni SC, Exposure To High Fluoride Concentrations In Drinking Water Is Associated With Decreased Birth Rates, J Toxicology &Environmental Health, 1994, 42, 109-12
  • Hoffman DJ, et al., Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicol Lett 1985 Jul;26(1):19-24
  • Kumar A, Susheela AK, Effects of Chronic Fluoride Toxicity on the Morphology of Ductus Epididymis and the Maturation of Spermatozoa of Rabbit, Fluoride,1995, 28:3
  • Kumar A, Susheela AK, Ultrastructural Studies of Spermiogenesis in Rabbit Exposed to Chronic Fluoride Toxicity, Fluoride, 1995, 28:1
  • Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ, Effect of Fluoride on Rat Testicular Steroidogenesis, Fluoride, 1994, 27:l
  • Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ, Reversible Effects of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Spermatozoa of the Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:3
  • Shashi A, Preliminary Observations on Alterations in Rabbit Ovary DNA and RNA Content in Experimental Fluorosis, Fluoride, 1994, 27:2
  • Shashi A, Biochemical Effects of Fluoride on Lipid Metabolism of the Reproductive Organs of Male Rabbits, Fluoride, 1992, 25:3
  • Susheela, Kumar A, A Study of the Effect of High Concentrations of Fluoride on the Reproductive Organs of Male Rabbits, Using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluoride, 1993, 26:2
  • Susheela AK; Jethanandani P, Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients, J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 34:2, 1996
  • Zhang ZY, Zhang GZ, Liu XJ, Effects of Organic Fluorine Exposure on the Reproductive Function of Female Workers and the Development of their Offspring, Fluoride, 1993, 26:3
  • Zhao ZL, Wu NP, Influence of Fluoride on Contents of Testosterone and Cholesterol in Rat, Fluoride, 1995, 28:3
ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS (summary/abstracts)
  • Banu Priya CAY, et al., Toxicity of Fluoride to Diabetic Rats, Fluoride, 1997 Feb, 30:1, 51-58
  • Baykov AA, et al., A two-step mechanism of fluoride inhibition of rat liver inorganic pyrophosphatase, Arch Biochem Biophys, 1992 Apr, 294:1, 238-43
  • Boros, et al., Fluoride intake, distribution, and bone content in diabetic rats consuming fluoridated drinking water, Fluoride, 1998, 31:1, 33-41
  • Chen GL, Experimental study of antagonizing effect of calcium and magnesium against fluoride toxicity in collagen, Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1992 Mar, 26(2), 80-82
  • Eckerlin RH, et al, Milk production of cows fed fluoride contaminated commercial feed. Cornell Vet 1986 Oct;76(4):403-14.
  • Gibson S, Effects of fluoride on immune system function, Complimentary Med. Res, 1992, Oct, 6:3, 111-113
  • Gupta IP, et al., Fluoride as a Possible Etiological Factor in Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia, J. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1992, 7, 355-356
  • Kumari DS, Rao PR, Red cell membrane alterations in human chronic fluoride toxicity, Biochem Int, 23:4, 1991
  • Lantz O, et al., Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure, Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure, Am J Kidney Dis, 1987 Aug, 10:2, 136-9
  • Muller P, et al., Sodium fluoride-induced gastric mucosal lesions: comparison with sodium monofluorophosphate, Gastroenterol, 1992 April, 30:4
    Pillai KS, et al., Effect of subacute dosage of fluoride on male mice, Toxicol Lett, 1988 Nov, 44:1-2, 21-9
  • Shea JJ, et al., Allergy to Fluoride, Annals of Allergy, 1967, 25, 388- 391
  • Shen N, et al., Relationship between height, collagen metabolism, hair zinc and excessive fluoride intake, Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1992 Mar, 23(1, 83-86
  • Sjostrom S, Kalfas S, Tissue necrosis after subgingival irrigation with fluoride solution, J of Clinical Periodontology 26(4):257-260, 1999
  • Spittle B, Allergy and Hypersensitivity To Fluoride, Fluoride, 1993 Oct, 26:4, 267-273
  • Li R, et al., Fluoride in Drinking Water and Intracardiac Blood Flow Defects in Iowa, Am. J. of Epidem, 1992 Oct, 136, 1030
  • Susheela AK, et al., Fluoride ingestion and its correlation with gastrointestinal discomfort, Fluoride, 1992, 25:l
  • Toxicological Profile For Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (F), April 1993, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
  • Waldbott GL, The Preskeletal Phase of Chronic Fluoride Intoxication, 1998, Fluoride, 31:1, 13-20
  • Whitford GM, et al, Effects of fluoride on structure and function of canine gastric mucosa, Dig Dis Sci, 1997, 42(10)
UpAre Fluoride's benefits over-rated? (abstracts
Dentistry maintains that fluoride ingestion and topical fluorides are the principal factors involved in the decline of tooth decay in the last 50 years. Are there other factors involved in the decreasing caries rates and are the claimed benefits of fluoride over-rated?
  • Adair SM, et al, Comparison of the use of a child and an adult dentifrice by a sample of preschool children. Pediatr Dent, 1997 Mar, 19 (2): 99-103.
  • Foch CB, The Costs, Effects, And Benefits of Preventive Dental Care: A Literature Review, 1981 Dec, N-1732-RWJF, A Rand Corporation Report
  • Hattab FN, The state of fluorides in toothpastes, Journal of Dentistry, 1989 Apr, 17(2), 47-54
  • Hathaway WE, Hargreaves JA, et al, A Study Into the Effects of Light on children of Elementary School Age -- A Case of Daylight Robbery, 1992 Feb, AB Education, ISBN -7732-0724-4
  • Loesche WJ, et al., Possible effect of medically administered antibiotics on the mutans streptococci: implications for reduction in decay, Oral Microbiol Immunol, 1989 Jun, 4(2), 77-81
  • Main RA, et al., A Survey of General Dentists In Ontario, Part II: Knowledge and Use of Topical Fluoride and Dental Prophylaxis Practices, J. Can Dent Assoc, 63:8, 1997 Sept, 607-617
  • O'Mullane DM, et al., A three-year clinical trial of a combination of trimetaphosphate and sodium fluoride in silica toothpastes, Dent Res, 1997, 76(11)
  • Ott J, LIGHT photosynthesis, the occulo-endocrine system and Dental Caries, J Am Society for Preventive Dentistry, 1975 July/Aug,5:4, 11-15
  • Riordan PJ, Fluoride supplements for young children: an analysis of the literature focusing on benefits and risks, Comm Dent & Oral Epidemio 27(1):72-83, 1999
  • Szpunar SM, et al., Sugar consumption and caries risk in schoolchildren with low caries experience, Com Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1995, 23(3)
  • Tanzer JM, Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries, Int Dent J, 1995, 45(1 Suppl 1)
  • Van Winkle S, et al, Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula, Pediatr Dent, 1995, 17 (4)
  • U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Dental Sealants in the Prevention of Tooth Decay, (Conference Summary, 4:11, Dec. 5-7, 1983)
  • Venkata Ranga Rao Kodali, et al., Eruption Of Deciduous Teeth: Influence Of Undernutrition and Environmental Fluoride, Fluoride, 27(4), 1994 October, 236-237, from Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 1993, 30:2
    editor's note--see related articles: Haikel Y, et al., Dental caries and fluorosis in children from high and low fluoride areas of Morocco Krook L, et al., Dental fluorosis in cattle
  • Wolff LF, et al., Effect of toothbrushing with 0.4% stannous fluoride and 0.22% sodium fluoride gel on gingivitis for 18 months. JADA, 1989, 119(2)
DEATHS/POISONING (abstracts poison.htm)
  • Akiniwa, Kenji, RE-Examination of acute toxicity of fluoride, Fluoride, 1997, 30:2, 89-104
  • Arnow PM, et al., An Outbreak of Fatal Fluoride Intoxication in a Long-term Hemodialysis Unit, Annals Int Med, 1994, 121
  • Foulkes RG, Case report: mass fluoride poisoning, Hooper Bay, Alaska, a review of the final report of the Alaska department of health and human services, April 12, 1993, Fluoride 1994, 27:1, 32-36
  • Gessner BD, et al., Acute Fluoride Poisoning From A Public Water System, NEJM, 1994, 330:2
  • Penman AD, et al., Outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning caused by a fluoride overfeed, Mississippi, Public Health Rep, 1997, 12(5)
  • Whitford GM, The Physiological and Toxicological Characteristics of Fluoride, J. Dent Res, 1990, 69:Spec Iss
  • Whitford GM, Fluoride in dental products: safety considerations, J Dent Res 1987, 66:5

UpSuppression, Persecution, Fraud (Censorship, Environment, Fraud, Skeletal)
  • Dr Brian Martin, Suppression of scientific data is wide-spread.
  • Diesendorf M., Diesendorf A., Suppression By Medical Journals Of A Warning About Overdosing Formula-Fed Infants With Fluoride, Fluoride, 1987 May, 30:2, 125, from Accountability in Research 1997, 5, 225-237
  • Sutton PRN, The Failure of Fluoridation, (editorial), Fluoride, 1990, 23:1
  • Diesendorf M, IN MEMORIAM..., Fluoride, 1995, 28:3
  • Grandjean P., M.D., letter to U.S. EPA. Did W.H.O. suppress evidence of harm or lack of benefit?
  • Hileman B, Excerpt: Voices of opposition have been suppressed since early days of fluoridation, Chemical & Engineering News, 1988, 66
  • Smith G, Attack on a health officer, North Hill News, 1970
  • Griffiths J, Bryson C, Fluoride, Teeth, and the Atomic Bomb, Waste Not, 1997
UpEnvironmental Concerns (Abstracts)
  • Exner FB, Economic Motives Behind Fluoridation
  • Damkaer DM, Dey DB, Evidence for Fluoride Effects on Salmon Passage at John Day Dam, Columbia River, 1982-1986, North American J. of Fisheries Management, 9 (1989), 154-162
  • Foulkes RG, Inorganic Fluorides, Canadian Environmental Protection Act (Priority Substances List Assessment Report, Government of Canada 1993, Fluoride, 1995 Feb, 28:1 29-3295, Review
  • Foulkes RG, Anderson AC, Impact of Artificial Fluoridation on Salmon Species in the Northwest USA and British Columbia, Canada, Fluoride, 1994, 27:4.
  • Griffiths J, Bryson C. Fluoride, Teeth, and the Atomic Bomb
  • Government of Canada review, pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), Priority Substances List Assessment Report, Inorganic Fluorides, ISBN 0-662-21070-9, (1993), 1-72
  • Gritsan NP, et al., Correlation among heavy metals and fluoride in soil, air and plants in relation to environmental damage, Fluoride, 1995, 28:4
  • Maylin GA, et al., Fluoride intoxication in dairy calves, Cornell Vet, 1987, 77:1
  • Krook L, et al., Dental fluorosis in cattle, Cornell-Vet, 1983, 73:4
  • Rose D, &Marier JR, Environmental Fluoride 1977, National Research Council of Canada, NRCC 16081